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Modules

OverviewA prokaryotic cell lacks membrane bound organelles, like nucleus and mitochondria. It is composed of a capsule, cell wall, pili, and flagella.Learning ObjectivesAfter...

OverviewIn heterogeneous mixtures, substances remain separate. In these mixtures, one substance is spread throughout another substance as small particles, droplets...

K-12

Hydra

OverviewHydra is a genus of small, freshwater animals of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa. They exist in polyp form, which is a radially symmetrical cylinder...

K-12

Frog

OverviewFrogs are amphibians which are widely found in India. An adult frog has a stout body that is differentiated into head and trunk. It possesses a pair of nostrils...

OverviewIn homogeneous mixtures, substances are completely mixed together and are indistinguishable from one another. This kind of mixture has a uniform composition...

K-12

Food Chain

OverviewA food chain is a linear network of links in an ecosystem starting from producer organisms and ending at an apex predator species, detritivores, or decomposer...

K-12

Food Web

OverviewA food web is a natural interconnection of many food chains by which energy and nutrients are transferred on from one species of living organisms to another. Learning...

OverviewA molecule is a group of atoms bonded together. Molecules can be monatomic, diatomic or polyatomic on the basis of the number of atoms present in them.Learning...

OverviewAn ecological pyramid is a graphical representation in the form of a pyramid to show the relationship of groups of organisms. It is represented in such a...

OverviewA solid material which is typically hard, shiny, malleable, fusible, and ductile, with good electrical and thermal conductivity is called metal.Learning...

K-12

Fern

OverviewThe fern belongs to the phylum Pterophyta that reproduces by means of spores. They usually have feathery fronds divided into many leaflets. Fern stems are...

K-12

Isotones

OverviewIsotones are atoms that have the same number of neutrons but a different number of protons. Boron-12 and carbon-13 are isotones, as both of them contain...

OverviewThe Calvin cycle is a cyclical series of biochemical reactions that occur in the stroma of chloroplasts during photosynthesis. At this stage, the energy...

OverviewIsoelectronic species have the same number of electrons or a similar electronic configuration, and similar structure. Isoelectronic species can be atoms,...

K-12

Diffusion

OverviewDiffusion is a physical process where molecules of a material move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.Learning ObjectivesAfter...

OverviewLewis dot structures of atoms are the representations that show valence electrons as dots around the element’s chemical symbol. Lewis dot structures of...

Overview When two resistors are connected in series, the overall resistance increases, and as a result, the current in the circuit decreases. When two resistors...

K-12

Osmosis

OverviewOsmosis is a process in which solvent molecules tend to move through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated...

OverviewBone is the substance that forms the skeleton of the body. It is a type of connective tissue. The main parts of a bone are compact bone, spongy bone, red...

K-12

PCR

OverviewPCR or polymerase chain reaction is a molecular technique used for the amplification of DNA. The main steps of PCR are denaturation, annealing and elongation. Learning...